Chrysanthemum is a plant that has been cultivated in China for centuries, with a large number of cultivated varieties in the world today.
In Japan, one of the countries where this flower is much appreciated, the chrysanthemum is seen as a symbol of the sun and the emperor, and there is even a national day dedicated to chrysanthemum, called the festival of happiness.
Plant profileCommon name: Chrysanthemum, Chrysanth, Chrysanth
Scientific name: Chrysanthemum
Plant type: Perennials
Height: 50cm - 1.5m
Spread: 10cm - 50cm
Flower color: Orange, Pink, White, Yellow
Season of interest: Autumn, Summer
Sunlight: Full Sun
Soil: Clay, Loam, Sand
Moisture: Moist but well drained
Garden type: City & Courtyard Gardens, Informal Garden, Patio & Container Garden
Planting type: Containers & Pots, Cut Flowers, Flower borders and bedding
The thousands of existing cultivated varieties range from dwarf cultivars approximately 30cm high to plants of about 1m high.
Flowers vary widely in shape and colors, and can be classified, for example, as simple, semi-folded, ball, pompom, anemone and spider.
As for the color they can be yellow, white, pink, red and also of intermediate tones between these colors.
Chrysanthemum flowers are edible, and are used to make tea in China and some Asian countries, but plants grown for ornamental purposes are generally unsuitable for consumption as they may contain pesticides and other toxic substances.
Chrysanthemum genus contains many hybrids and cultivars developed for horticultural purposes. The most important hybrid is Chrysanthemum × morifolium (syn. C. × grandiflorum), derived primarily from C. indicum.
It can be grown in various types of climate. It grows best at temperatures between 15°C and 28°C, with high relative humidity.
Direct sunlight or partial shade with good light.
The soil should remain moist but not soaked.
Plant Chrysanthemums in well-drained, fertile soil, rich in organic matter and with a pH between 6 and 7.
Chrysanthemums are plants of short days, and bloom when the daylight start to decrease and the nights increase in duration. Therefore they bloom in autumn or winter, depending on the region.
In low-latitude regions, it does not flower naturally. Plants can be induced to flower by artificially shortening the day, for example, by covering the plants with a dark opaque plastic a few hours before dusk and uncovering a few hours after sunrise, simulating a night of 12 to 15 h.
Perennial plants, but are sometimes grown as annuals. It is recommended to divide and replant them every three years, if they are kept as perennial plants.
The most comon propagation method is by softwood cuttings of terminal branches in spring.
You can also propagate by seed sown in the final place or in seed trays, transplanting the seedlings carefully when they have 4 or 6 true leaves. Chrysanthemum seeds are small and should be sown superficially. Seed germination usually takes between one and three weeks.
Propagation can also be done by division of plants with two years or more.