Cucumis sativus (Cucumber)

How to plant and grow cucumbers (Cucumis sativus)

Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is a climbing plant, whose branches can grow from 1 to 3 m in length. Its fruits are usually consumed while still immature, raw or canned.

Common name: Cucumber, Cucumber
Scientific name: Cucumis sativus, Cucumis sativus
Plant type:

Where does cucumber grows best?

Cucumber prefers warm weather, growing well in places with temperatures between 18°C and 30°C. The plants should be sheltered from the wind.

How to plant and grow cucumbers (Cucumis sativus) - canned cucumbers -
Canned cucumbers


Cucumbers grow best in full sun.


Plant in soil rich in organic matter, fertile and well drained. This plant does not need a soil rich in nitrogen. The ideal soil pH is 5.5 to 6.8.


The cucumber must be watered as often as necessary so that its roots never dry out, but without the soil becoming soaked.

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Cucumber seeds do not germinate well at temperatures below 20°C. Sow preferably in the garden, as the seedlings do not support weel to be transplanted.
However, if convenient (for example, if your region has cold winters and you want to plant in early spring, when there is still a risk of low temperatures), the seeds can be sown in pots or trays, kept in a warm place, and then transplanted carefully to the final place.
The seeds can be sown 2 or 3cm deep, and germination takes 5 to 15 days.

The spacing indicated for the cucumber can vary widely with the cultivar and the cultivation method.
In vertical cultivation, the spacing can generally be 60 cm to 1 m between the cultivation lines and 45 to 50 cm between the plants.

How to plant and grow cucumbers (Cucumis sativus) - cucumbers growing vertically -
Cucumbers growing vertically

For cultivation with plants growing horizontally, the spacing can be 2 m between rows and 75 cm to 1 m between plants.

How to plant and grow cucumbers (Cucumis sativus) - cucumbers growing horizontally -
Cucumbers growing horizontally

For the production of canned cucumber, the spacing can be from 1 m to 1.2 m between the cultivation lines and 20 cm between the plants.

It is possible to grow cucumber in pots that are at least 30 cm in diameter and depth, but most cultivars do not grow and produce well in these conditions.


The cucumber can be grown as a creeping plant or can be grown on a fence, a trellis, a pergola, etc. There are a few cultivars that form thickets and do not spread across the land.

The tips of the main branches can be cut to promote greater plant branching. For vertical plants, this should only be done when the branches reach the full height of the support.

Most cultivars require the presence of bees for pollination and consequent fruit development.

How to plant and grow cucumbers (Cucumis sativus) - Cucumber yelow flower -
Cucumber yellow flower


Generally, cucumber harvesting starts 30 to 70 days after planting, depending on the cultivar, the purpose (canned cucumbers are harvested earlier) and growing conditions.
The fruits of most cultivars must be harvested when they are well developed, but before they start to ripen.
Canned cucumber is harvested at a young age, when it is 3 cm to 9 cm long.

How to plant and grow cucumbers (Cucumis sativus) - harvesting cucumbers -
Harvesting cucumbers

Life cycle

Cucumber is an annual plant.

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